Study objective: To evaluate the metabolism of antipyrine, a general metabolic probe, caffeine, a probe for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase activity, and dextromethorphan, a specific probe for CYP2D6 activity in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus.
Design: Prospective, controlled study.
Setting: Research facility. Patients. Fifteen patients with type 1 and 16 with type 2 diabetes, and 16 healthy controls.
Intervention: Each subject simultaneously received antipyrine 10 mg/kg, caffeine 100 mg, and dextromethorphan 30 mg.
Measurements and main results: The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and its primary metabolites were determined from saliva and urine samples. Type 1 diabetes had marked effects on antipyrine metabolism whereas type 2 disease did not alter the metabolism of any of the probe drugs. The apparent oral clearance of antipyrine was increased 72% in patients with type 1 disease compared with controls (p=0.0001). In addition, formation clearances of 4-hydroxyantipyrine and 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine were increased by 74% and 137% in those patients relative to controls. The caffeine metabolic index (paraxanthine/caffeine) was increased 34% (p=0.11), and N-acetylation and CYP2D6 phenotype were not altered.
Conclusion: The metabolism of antipyrine is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes. Based on in vitro reports of antipyrine metabolism and current caffeine metabolic index data, the predominant effect of type 1 diabetes appears to be an increase in CYP1A2 activity. Assessment of the effect of the disease on other specific CYP metabolic pathways is warranted.