Indwelling catheters are strongly associated with the development of bacteriuria, which can lead to significant morbidity in hospitalized patients. This report, a review of the literature, evaluates the infectious outcomes of patients with indwelling catheters to determine the precise clinical and economic impact of catheter-related infection. Statistical pooling was used to estimate the incidence of bacteriuria in hospitalized patients with indwelling catheters. In addition, the proportion of patients with catheter-related bacteriuria in whom symptomatic urinary tract infection and bacteremia will develop was estimated through quantitative synthesis of previous reports. Costs were estimated by using microcosting techniques. Of patients who have indwelling catheters for 2 to 10 days, bacteriuria is expected to develop in 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23% to 29%). Among patients with bacteriuria symptoms of urinary tract infection will develop in 24%, (95% CI, 16% to 32%), and bacteremia from a urinary tract source will develop in 3.6% (95% CI, 3.4% to 3.8%). Each episode of symptomatic urinary tract infection is expected to cost an additional $676, and catheter-related bacteremia is likely to cost at least $2836. Given the clinical and economic burden of urinary catheter-related infection, infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists should use the latest infection control principles and technology to reduce this common complication.