Toll signaling pathways in the innate immune response

Curr Opin Immunol. 2000 Feb;12(1):13-9. doi: 10.1016/s0952-7915(99)00045-x.


The Toll signaling pathway, which is required for the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos, plays an important role in the response of larval and adult Drosophila to microbial infections. Recent genetic evidence has shown that a mammalian Toll-like receptor, mouse Tlr4, is the signal transducing receptor activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Thus, Toll-like receptors appear to detect a variety of microbial components and to trigger a defensive reaction in both Drosophila and mammals. Genetic data from both Drosophila and mice have defined components required for activation of Toll-like receptors and for the downstream pathways activated by the Toll-like receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Drosophila / immunology
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Immune System / metabolism*
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mammals / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Models, Immunological*
  • Mycoses / immunology
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Immunologic / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptor 5
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Insect Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Tl protein, Drosophila
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptor 5
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • tehao protein, Drosophila