Molecular basis of multiple exostoses: mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes

Hum Mutat. 2000;15(3):220-7. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200003)15:3<220::AID-HUMU2>3.0.CO;2-K.


Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the formation of exostoses, which are cartilage-capped bony protuberances mainly located on long bones. Two genes, EXT1 and EXT2, and at least one other unidentified gene, are known to be involved in the formation of exostoses. To date, 49 different EXT1 and 25 different EXT2 mutations have been found in EXT patients, and there is evidence that mutations in these two genes are responsible for over 70% of the EXT cases. Among the 49 EXT1 mutations there are 9 nonsense, 21 frameshift, and 5 splice site mutations; 2 in-frame deletions of 1 and 5 amino acids respectively; and 12 missense mutations. For EXT2, 8 nonsense, 11 frameshift, 3 splice site and 3 missense mutations are described. The majority of these mutations are mutations causing loss of function, which is consistent with the presumed tumor suppressor function of the EXT genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases*
  • Proteins / genetics


  • Proteins
  • N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases
  • exostosin-1
  • exostosin-2