Recent evidence suggests that K(+) channels composed of Kv4.2 alpha-subunits underlie a transient current in hippocampal CA1 neurons and ventricular myocytes, and activation of the cAMP second messenger cascade has been shown to modulate this transient current. We determined if Kv4.2 alpha-subunits were directly phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The intracellular domains of the amino and carboxyl termini of Kv4.2 were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion protein constructs; we observed that both of these fusion proteins were substrates for PKA in vitro. By using phosphopeptide mapping and amino acid sequencing, we identified PKA phosphorylation sites on the amino- and carboxyl-terminal fusion proteins corresponding to Thr(38) and Ser(552), respectively, within the Kv4.2 sequence. Kinetic characterization of the PKA sites demonstrated phosphorylation kinetics comparable to Kemptide. To evaluate PKA site phosphorylation in situ, phospho-selective antisera for each of the sites were generated. By using COS-7 cells expressing an EGFP-Kv4.2 fusion protein, we observed that stimulation of the endogenous PKA cascade resulted in an increase in phosphorylation of Thr(38) and Ser(552) within Kv4.2 in the intact cell. We also observed modulation of PKA phosphorylation at these sites within Kv4.2 in hippocampal area CA1. These results provide insight into likely sites of regulation of Kv4.2 by PKA.