Peritoneal dialysis solutions containing icodextrin are ideal for providing sustained ultrafiltration during long dwells, and they have replaced high glucose for long dwells in some patients. The biocompatibility of these solutions, especially in regard to glucose degradation products, has not been studied in depth. The object of this study was to compare the effects of commercially available dextrose-containing dialysis solutions to those of icodextrin-containing solutions on fibroblast proliferation in vitro. We measured the effect of solutions on cell growth by exposing murine fibroblasts to pH-adjusted test solutions mixed with culture medium, and by comparing cell growth to growth in culture medium only. No statistical difference was observed in the growth of cells exposed to heat-sterilized Extraneal [7.5% icodextrin (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, Illinois, U.S.A.)], heat-sterilized Dianeal [1.5% dextrose (Baxter Healthcare)], or filter-sterilized Dianeal [4.25% dextrose (Baxter Healthcare]. Also, no difference was observed in the growth of fibroblasts exposed to heat-sterilized Extraneal or to filter-sterilized Extraneal, but heat-sterilized Dianeal [4.25% dextrose (Baxter Healthcare)] caused a significant reduction in cell growth. Glucose degradation products (GDPs) are known to contribute to reduced cell growth in vitro. Extraneal had lower levels of the GDP acetaldehyde compared to Dianeal (2.5% or 4.25% dextrose). The results demonstrate enhanced in vitro biocompatibility characteristics for Extraneal, possibly related to low GDP levels in Extraneal.