Chromium is essential for the regulation of insulin action, thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. An uncontrolled pilot study was designed to measure the habitual daily intake of chromium in a group of healthy individuals with type 2 diabetes and to monitor the effect of daily supplementation with high chromium yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoproteins. Twelve free-living adults with type 2 diabetes underwent a glucose tolerance test (GTT) on recruitment, at 4 weeks (after a 7-d duplicate diet collection) and at 12 weeks (following 8 weeks daily supplementation with 100 micrograms of chromium). Urine samples were collected on the day before and the day of each GTT. Blood samples were taken at half hourly intervals for 3 hours during the GTT and the plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and insulin concentration measured. The chromium content of diets and urine samples was determined. Fasting glucose concentrations and glucose area under the curve profiles did not alter significantly post supplementation with the chromium rich yeast. No significant changes in insulin and lipoprotein concentrations were observed. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that individuals with type 2 diabetes benefit from yeast-based chromium supplements (100 micrograms/day).