Infarct Size Reduction by Ischemic Preconditioning Is a Monophasic, Short-Lived Phenomenon in Anesthetized Pigs

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jan;3(1):63-70. doi: 10.1177/107424849800300108.


BACKGROUND: Controversy exists concerning the duration of infarct size reduction with ischemic preconditioning in different species. In the present study, we (a) evaluated the time course of protection with preconditioning and (b) sought to determine whether late protection (the "second window") after 24 hours is manifest in the open-chest pig model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six groups of pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs underwent 1 hour of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 2 hours of reperfusion. Group 1 served as control, and pigs in group 2 received two 10-minute episodes of preconditioning ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion before the sustained 1-hour occlusion. In groups 3-6, the period of intervening reperfusion between the preconditioning stimulus and the index ischemia was extended to 60, 90, and 300 minutes and 24 hours, respectively. The area at risk was determined by fluorescein dye injection, and infarct size was measured by incubation in p-nitrobluetetrazolium and expressed as percent of the risk area. Infarct size in preconditioned pigs (group 2) was significantly reduced compared with controls (25.6 +/- 3.9% v 71.3 +/- 5.9%, P <.001). Extension of the intervening reperfusion to 60, 90, and 300 minutes and 24 hours resulted in infarct sizes of 64.5 +/- 5.5%, 67.2 +/- 8%, 62.6 +/- 6.1%, and 75.3 +/- 7%, respectively (P = NS v control). CONCLUSIONS: The infarct size-limiting effects of ischemic preconditioning last less than 1 hour in the pig model. Moreover, in contrast to other species, a late protection at 24 hours after the preconditioning stimulus was not detected. These results indicate that precondition-induced reduction of infarct size is monophasic in anesthetized pigs.