Ovarian cancer in female-to-male transsexuals: report of two cases

Gynecol Oncol. 2000 Mar;76(3):413-5. doi: 10.1006/gyno.1999.5720.


Background: Ovarium cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women and is the most common fatal gynecologic malignancy. So far, ovarium carcinoma has not been reported to have occurred in female-to-male transsexuals.

Objective and method: We report on two such cases. Long-term exposure to increased levels of endogenous and exogenous androgens is hypothesized to constitute an additional risk factor in transsexuals as it has been associated with ovarian epithelian cancer.

Conclusion: Simultaneous salpingo-oophorectomy should be performed in any female-to-male transsexual undergoing hysterectomy in the course of gender-confirming therapy.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperandrogenism*
  • Hysterectomy
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms*
  • Ovariectomy
  • Risk Factors
  • Transsexualism*


  • Androgens