Objective: To prospectively compare the incidence of respiratory failure in premature infants randomized to receive either nasopharyngeal continuous positive airway pressure (NPCPAP) or nasopharyngeal-synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (NP-SIMV) in the immediate postextubation period.
Study design: This is a prospective study of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants randomized at the time of extubation to receive either NPCPAP or NP-SIMV in a university-based level III neonatal intensive care unit. Statistical analysis were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous and ordinal variables, and with the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables.
Results: A total of 41 VLBW infants were studied; 19 were in the NPCPAP group, and 22 were in the NP-SIMV group. Respiratory failure after extubation in the NP-SIMV group was significantly lower that in the NPCPAP group (5% vs 37%, respectively (p = 0.016). No statistically significant differences between groups with regard to demographics, severity of initial illness and associated complications, time to extubation, ventilatory management before extubation, weight, age, or nutritional status at the time of extubation were noted.