An autopsy case of fatal subacute hepatic failure after administration of troglitazone is described. The liver dysfunction developed about five months after the patient, a sixty-three-year-old woman, had been initially treated with troglitazone. The patient developed hepatic failure and died despite various hepatic auxiliary treatments such as plasmapheresis. Autopsy findings revealed focal liver cell necrosis, cholestasis and steatosis with infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils and lack of regenerative activity. The causative mechanism of liver dysfunction may be metabolite aberration, as a result of accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolite(s), in a category of idiosyncratic liver injury. It is proposed to monitor liver function strictly and periodically for the diabetic patients prescribed troglitazone.