Objectives: To determine the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in community-based adults receiving home health care and to identify risk factors for incident Stage II to IV pressure ulcers.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: A large midwestern urban home health care agency.
Patients: The study cohort was 1711 nonhospice, nonintravenous therapy subjects admitted between January 1995 and March 1996 who were > or = age 60 and pressure ulcer-free on admission.
Measurements: Data on risk factors were extracted from admission information. Patient records were followed forward chronologically to the outcomes: pressure ulcer development or no pressure ulcer.
Main results: The incidence of Stage II to IV pressure ulcers was 3.2%. Cox regression analyses revealed that limitation in activity to a wheelchair, needing assistance with the activities of daily living--dressing, bowel and/or bladder incontinence, a Braden Scale mobility subscore of very limited, anemia, adult child as primary caregiver, male gender, a recent fracture, oxygen use, and skin drainage predicted pressure ulcer development (P < or = 0.05) in this exploratory model.
Conclusions: Patients > or = age 60 who are admitted to a home health care agency with 1 or more of these risk factors require close monitoring for pressure ulcer development and should be taught preventive interventions on admission.