Pressure ulcers in community-based older adults receiving home health care. Prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors

Adv Wound Care. 1999 Sep;12(7):339-51.


Objectives: To determine the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in community-based adults receiving home health care and to identify risk factors for incident Stage II to IV pressure ulcers.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: A large midwestern urban home health care agency.

Patients: The study cohort was 1711 nonhospice, nonintravenous therapy subjects admitted between January 1995 and March 1996 who were > or = age 60 and pressure ulcer-free on admission.

Measurements: Data on risk factors were extracted from admission information. Patient records were followed forward chronologically to the outcomes: pressure ulcer development or no pressure ulcer.

Main results: The incidence of Stage II to IV pressure ulcers was 3.2%. Cox regression analyses revealed that limitation in activity to a wheelchair, needing assistance with the activities of daily living--dressing, bowel and/or bladder incontinence, a Braden Scale mobility subscore of very limited, anemia, adult child as primary caregiver, male gender, a recent fracture, oxygen use, and skin drainage predicted pressure ulcer development (P < or = 0.05) in this exploratory model.

Conclusions: Patients > or = age 60 who are admitted to a home health care agency with 1 or more of these risk factors require close monitoring for pressure ulcer development and should be taught preventive interventions on admission.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Community Health Nursing*
  • Female
  • Home Care Services*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pressure Ulcer / classification
  • Pressure Ulcer / epidemiology*
  • Pressure Ulcer / etiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index