The integrin family of cell surface glycoproteins functions primarily as receptors for extracellular matrix ligands. There are now many well characterized integrin-ligand interactions which are known to influence many aspects of cell behaviour including cell morphology, cell adhesion, cell migration as well as cellular proliferation and differentiation. However, in fulfilling these functions, integrins are not simple adhesion receptors that physically mediate connections across the plasma membrane. Rather, integrin function itself is highly regulated, largely through the formation of specific associations with both structural and regulatory components within cells. It is these intracellular interactions which allow integrin function to effect many biochemical signalling pathways and therefore to impinge upon complex cellular activities. Recently, much research has focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms which control integrin function and the molecular processes which transduce integrin-mediated signalling events. In this review, we discuss progress in the field of integrin signal transduction including, where applicable, potential therapeutic applications arising from the research.