Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the large ribosomal RNA region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was developed as a genetic marker for investigating mitochondrial transmission in sexual crosses of the human pathogenic basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Strain JEC20 of C. neoformans var. neoformans (mat a) was mated with six strains of C. neoformans var. grubii (mat alpha). Successful mating was indicated by the formation of hyphae and basidiospores. These basidiospores were examined for mtDNA RFLP genotypes. All 570 basidiospores examined from the six crosses showed the mtDNA genotype of strain JEC20. The failure to recover the C. neoformans var. grubii mtDNA in any cross indicates that the C. neoformans var. grubii mtDNA is either selectively eliminated in the newly formed dikaryon or selectively excluded in the immediate dikaryotic hyphae of the newly formed dikaryon.