Hepatitis is one of the most important infectious diseases in Thailand. The knowledge of host factors that influence the course of the disease is still limited. In this study, the HLA class I and class II phenotypes were analyzed in the 2 groups of HCV-infected Thai populations. The first group included 43 individuals with transient HCV infection (HCV antibody positive, HCV RNA PCR negative), and the second included 57 individuals with persistent chronic HCV infection (HCV antibody positive, PCR positive). HLA class I typing was performed by 2-stage microlymphocytotoxicity test, and HLA class II typing, by PCR-SSO. No significant difference in the frequencies of HLA-A and -B antigens was observed between the 2 groups of HCV-infected individuals. The frequency of DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 was significantly higher in the persistent-infection group than in the transient-infection group (Pc = 0.03, Pc = 0.04, respectively). In addition, DRB1*0701 and DQA1*0201 were significantly decreased in all the HCV-infected patients compared with levels in the normal controls (Pc = 0.003, Pc = 0.001, respectively). This study demonstrated that DRB1*0301 and DQB1*0201 are associated with persistent HCV infection, whereas DRB1*0701 and DQA*0201 are associated with protection against HCV infection.