Endoderm development: from patterning to organogenesis

Trends Genet. 2000 Mar;16(3):124-30. doi: 10.1016/s0168-9525(99)01957-5.


Although the ectoderm and mesoderm have been the focus of intensive work in the recent era of studies on the molecular control of vertebrate development, the endoderm has received less attention. Because signaling must occur between germ layers in order to achieve a properly organized body, our understanding of the coordinated development of all organs requires a more thorough consideration of the endoderm and its derivatives. This review focuses on present knowledge and perspectives concerning endoderm patterning and organogenesis. Some of the classical embryology of the endoderm is discussed and the progress and deficiencies in cellular and molecular studies are noted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Lineage
  • Chick Embryo
  • Digestive System / embryology
  • Embryonic Induction
  • Endocrine Glands / embryology
  • Endoderm / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Genes, Homeobox
  • Morphogenesis
  • Vertebrates / embryology
  • Xenopus laevis / embryology
  • Zebrafish / embryology