Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinosa of adult rat spinal cord (part 2): effects on somatodendritic sites of GABAergic neurons

Anesthesiology. 2000 Feb;92(2):485-92. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200002000-00031.


Background: It has been reported previously that norepinephrine, when applied to the spinal cord dorsal horn, excites a subpopulation of dorsal horn neurons, presumably inhibitory interneurons. In the current study, the authors tested whether norepinephrine could activate inhibitory interneurons, specifically those that are "GABAergic."

Methods: A transverse slice was obtained from a segment of the lumbar spinal cord isolated from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa neurons using the blind patch-clamp technique. The effects of norepinephrine on spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents were studied.

Results: In the majority of substantia gelatinosa neurons tested, norepinephrine (10-60 microM) significantly increased both the frequency and the amplitude of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents. These increases were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). The effects of norepinephrine were mimicked by the alpha1-receptor agonist phenylephrine (10-80 microM) and inhibited by the alpha1-receptor-antagonist WB-4101 (0.5 microM). Primary-afferent-evoked polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials or excitatory postsynaptic currents in wide-dynamic-range neurons of the deep dorsal horn were also attenuated by phenylephrine (40 microM).

Conclusion: The observations suggest that GABAergic interneurons possess somatodendritic alpha1 receptors, and activation of these receptors excites inhibitory interneurons. The alpha1 actions reported herein may contribute to the analgesic action of intrathecally administered phenylephrine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Anterior Horn Cells / drug effects
  • Dendrites / drug effects*
  • Dendrites / ultrastructure
  • Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials / drug effects
  • GABA Antagonists / pharmacology
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Interneurons / drug effects
  • Male
  • Membrane Potentials / drug effects
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Neurons / ultrastructure
  • Norepinephrine / pharmacology*
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques
  • Presynaptic Terminals / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Spinal Cord / cytology
  • Spinal Cord / drug effects*
  • Substantia Gelatinosa / cytology
  • Substantia Gelatinosa / drug effects*
  • Synaptic Transmission / drug effects*
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / physiology*


  • Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • GABA Antagonists
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Norepinephrine