Hypertensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have a faster progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than their normotensive counterparts. The aim of this prospective, randomized study is to compare the effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril as first-line therapy on blood pressure, renal function, and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients with ADPKD. Twenty-four patients with ADPKD with hypertension with creatinine clearances (Ccrs) greater than 50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were included in the study. Twelve patients received amlodipine (mean dose, 9 mg/d), and 12 patients received enalapril (mean dose, 17 mg/d). The patients were followed up for 5 years. Baseline mean arterial pressures, which were 109 +/- 3 mm Hg in the amlodipine group and 108 +/- 3 mm Hg in the enalapril group, decreased significantly after 1 year of follow-up (amlodipine, 96 +/- 3 mm Hg; P < 0.005; enalapril, 89 +/- 2 mm Hg; P < 0.0005) and remained stable at year 5 (amlodipine, 97 +/- 3 mm Hg; P < 0.0005 versus baseline; enalapril, 94 +/- 3 mm Hg; P < 0.005 versus baseline). Ccrs, which were 83 +/- 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the amlodipine group and 77 +/- 6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the enalapril group, remained stable after 1 year of follow-up and decreased significantly at year 3 in both groups (amlodipine, 67 +/- 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.01 versus year 1 and baseline; enalapril, 58 +/- 4 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.05 versus year 1 and P < 0.0005 versus baseline) with no significant change thereafter. No change was observed in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio in the amlodipine group (baseline, 68 +/- 21 mg/g; year 1, 52 +/- 21 mg/g; year 5, 148 +/- 74 mg/g), whereas it decreased significantly in the enalapril group at year 1 (baseline, 23 +/- 4 mg/g; year 1, 13 +/- 3 mg/g; P < 0.05) and remained stable until the end of the study at year 5 (14 +/- 6 mg/g). The investigators concluded that blood pressure was similar in both groups but only enalapril had a significant effect to sustain decreased urinary albumin excretion for a 5-year follow-up. Although proteinuria has been considered a surrogate of renal disease progression, further studies will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis in ADPKD, because after 5 years, no differences in renal function were observed between the enalapril and amlodipine groups. In comparison with patients with ADPKD with uncontrolled hypertension, effective control of blood pressure, as undertaken in the present study, should delay the onset of ESRD by approximately 15 years.