Purpose: To determine if the use of nonionic contrast material, as compared to the use of gadodiamide to supplement carbon dioxide angiography in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), results in significant worsening of renal function.
Materials and methods: Lower extremity angiographic procedures (diagnostic and diagnostic/intervention) were performed in 40 patients with CRI (baseline serum creatinine [Cr] > 1.5 mg/dL) using CO2 alone or CO2 supplemented with the use of either nonionic contrast material or gadodiamide (up to 0.4 mmol/kg). Serum creatinine levels were obtained before the procedure and at 48 hours after the procedure. The peak Cr level was also determined for patients with a significant (> 0.5 mg/dL) Cr elevation.
Results: Forty-two lower extremity angiographic procedures (19 diagnostic and 23 diagnostic/interventions) were performed in 40 consecutive patients from August 1997 to October 1998, with a mean preprocedure Cr of 2.2 mg/dL and a mean postprocedure Cr of 2.4 mg/dL. Twenty-five of the 40 patients (63%) had diabetes mellitus. Fifteen procedures, including six interventions, were performed utilizing CO2 and nonionic contrast material in 15 patients. Six of these 15 patients (40%) demonstrated a Cr increase > 0.5 mg/dL at 48 hours. Seven procedures, including two interventions, were performed with CO2 alone in seven patients. No patients in this group demonstrated an increase in serum creatinine of greater than 0.5 mg/dL at 48 hours. Twenty procedures, including 15 interventions, were performed with CO2 and gadodiamide in 18 patients. In one of these 20 procedures (5%) there was an increase in Cr > 0.5 mg/dL at 48 hours The difference in worsening renal function for the nonionic contrast group (six of 15) compared with the CO2/gadodiamide group (one of 20) was statistically significant (P = .03). When comparing the use of CO2 and nonionic contrast material versus CO2 alone and with gadodiamide (six of 15 versus one of 27), the difference is also statistically significant (P < .01). The average volume of supplemental contrast material was similar in the nonionic contrast material and gadodiamide groups, as was the average volume of supplemental nonionic contrast material in the six patients with an increased Cr.
Conclusion: The use of small volumes of nonionic contrast material to supplement CO2 angiography in patients with PVD and CRI can be associated with a significant increased risk of worsening renal function when compared to angiography performed with CO2 alone or CO2 and gadodiamide.