Two experiments were carried out to investigate if the supplementation with vitamin E affects refined olive oil response to oxidation regarding the stability of the oil and the protection in vivo against lipid peroxidation in rats after its intake in comparison with other edible oils. In experiment 1, samples of virgin olive oil, refined olive oil, refined olive oil supplemented by us with 200 mg/kg vitamin E, and sunflower oil were collected before and after a 60 min frying process. After frying, refined olive oil supplemented with vitamin E compared with the non-supplemented refined olive oil had a higher concentration of alpha-tocopherol (240.34+/-6.07 mg/kg vs. 131.94+/-8.14 mg/kg), more resistance against oxidation (19.01+/-1.88% vs. 10.6+/-2.08%) and less polar components (4.2+/-0.06% vs. 5.45+/-0.22%). In experiment 2, 24 male Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups, were fed on diets based on the same unfried oils (8% w/w) as in experiment 1, for 4 weeks. Two days prior to the end of the experiment, the rats were intraperitoneally administered with adriamycin (10 mg/kg/ day) to provoke an oxidative stress. The rats fed on refined olive oil plus vitamin E compared to the rats fed on non-supplemented refined olive oil had lower hydroperoxides concentrations (26.8+/-2.6 nmol/mg vs. 35.6+/-2.49 nmol/mg) higher coenzyme Q levels (128.1+/-11.97 pmol/mg vs. 81.25+/-9.25 pmol/mg) and higher alpha-tocopherol values (1.23+/-0.04 mmol/mg vs. 0.93+/-0.06 mmol/mg) in microsomes of liver. In conclusion, the supplementation of refined olive oil with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E increases the stability of this oil under pro-oxidant conditions, and its intake decreases the oxidative damage generated by adriamycin in rats.