To investigate the dynamics of nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and to determine the prevalent serogroups/types (SGT) and their antimicrobial susceptibility, we studied 100 infants attending our well-baby clinic. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were obtained at 6, 10, 14, 18 and 22 weeks and at 9 and 18 months of age and submitted for culture, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. pneumoniae. Colonization with pneumococcus was seen on at least one occasion in 81 infants. The median age of acquisition was 11 weeks and the median duration of carriage was 1 3 months. The common SGTs identified were 6, 19, 14 and 15. SGT 1, which was a common invasive isolate in children in our hospital during this period, was not isolated from these children. Sequential colonization by 2, 3 or 4 SGTs was observed in 18, 5 and 2 children, respectively. Resistance to penicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and erythromycin was observed in 0, 13 (6%) 11 (5 %) and 5 (3 %) isolates, respectively. There was a significant difference in susceptibility to cotrimoxazole between colonizing and invasive isolates (5 % vs. 40 %, P<0.0001).