The present study investigated the effect of curcumin on adriamycin (ADR) nephrosis in rats. The results indicate that ADR-induced kidney injury was remarkably prevented by treatment with curcumin. Treatment with curcumin markedly protected against ADR-induced proteinuria, albuminuria, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Similarly, curcumin inhibited ADR-induced increase in urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (a marker of renal tubular injury), fibronectin and glycosaminoglycan and plasma cholesterol. Curcumin restored renal function in ADR rats, as judged by the increase in GFR. The data also demonstrated that curcumin protected against ADR-induced renal injury by suppressing oxidative stress and increasing kidney glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity. In like manner, curcumin abolished ADR-stimulated kidney microsomal and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. These data suggest that administration of curcumin is a promising approach in the treatment of nephrosis caused by ADR.