Occupational lung cancer risk for men in Germany: results from a pooled case-control study

Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Feb 15;151(4):384-95. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010218.


Occupational exposures such as crystalline silica, diesel engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and man-made mineral fibers are strongly suspected to increase lung cancer risk. Two case-control studies in Germany conducted between 1988 and 1996 were pooled for a joint analysis. A total of 3,498 male cases and 3,541 male population controls, frequency matched for age and region, were included in the study. The lifelong history of all jobs and industries was coded and occupational exposures were evaluated by expert rating. Odds ratios, crude and adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure, were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Job-related evaluation showed a statistically significant increased odds ratio adjusted for smoking among farmers; forestry workers, fishermen, and livestock workers; miners and quarrymen; chemical processors; cabinet makers and related wood workers; metal producers and processors; bricklayers and carpenters; road construction workers, pipelayers and well diggers; plasterers, insulators, and upholsterers; painters and lacquerers; stationary engine and heavy equipment operators; transport workers and freight handlers; and service workers. With regard to specific occupational exposures, elevated odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for lung cancer risk adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure were observed for man-made mineral fibers (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.17, 1.88); crystalline silica (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.22, 1.62); diesel engine exhaust (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.23, 1.67); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.04). The risk of asbestos exposure, adjusted for smoking was also increased (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.24, 1.60).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Industry*
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mineral Fibers / adverse effects
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons / adverse effects
  • Silicosis / complications
  • Silicosis / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vehicle Emissions / adverse effects


  • Mineral Fibers
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Vehicle Emissions