Multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) represent complex processes that lead to destruction of oligodendrocytes (ODCs) and myelin. T cells are integral to the development of these diseases, but whether T cell-mediated cytolytic mechanisms are involved in the destruction of MHC Class II-negative targets, such as oligodendroglia and myelin, in the CNS is unclear. The primary lytic mechanism employed by CD4+ T cells is Fas-dependent, but can be MHC-unrestricted. Thus, T cell-mediated Fas-FasL interactions could directly contribute to the pathology of EAE and MS. This review summarizes studies from our laboratory and others that implicate Fas-FasL interactions in both the pathogenesis and regulation of demyelinating diseases.