Diagnosis, disclosure, and informed consent: learning from parents of children with cancer

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. Jan-Feb 2000;22(1):3-12. doi: 10.1097/00043426-200001000-00002.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to learn about and to describe retrospective perceptions of parents of the circumstances of their child's cancer diagnosis and of the informed consent process.

Methods: Professional moderators conducted three focus groups with 22 parents of children with cancer who were eligible for enrollment in a Children's Cancer Group clinical trial research protocol. Each focus group consisted of seven to nine parents and was audiotaped and transcribed.

Results: Parents' descriptions of the early phase of their child's illness yielded the following themes: dialogues regarding the diagnosis and treatment options occurred amidst tremendous stress; a sense of constraint and lack of control were common; parents experienced variable degrees of choice regarding their child's participation in a clinical trial; and parents provided suggestions about how to improve the informed consent process. Overall, parents did not verbalize distinctions between their understanding of their child's medical treatment, research participation, and other aspects of their child's cancer experience.

Conclusions: Based on these results, the authors conclude with practical recommendations for health care professionals caring for children with cancer and call for future research about parents' understanding of treatment options, the nature of clinical trials, and experience with the diagnostic and early treatment phase of childhood cancer with larger samples of parents from multiple sites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / psychology
  • Decision Making
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Humans
  • Informed Consent*
  • Male
  • Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Physician-Patient Relations
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / psychology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Social Support
  • Truth Disclosure*