Menopause, HRT and menopausal symptoms

J Epidemiol Biostat. 1999;4(3):141-6; discussion 146-53.


Menopause is defined as the final menstruation, directly preceding the permanent cessation of ovarian follicular function. The transition from the reproductive to the non-reproductive phase of life can take many years, frequently characterised by perimenopausal cycle disorders, vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) and urogenital complaints (vaginal dryness, micturition complaints). In addition to these typical climacteric symptoms other, more atypical symptoms can be present, such as tiredness, irritability and mood swings. Topical and systemic oral and transdermal HRTs are generally very effective as symptomatic treatment, but other non-hormonal options can also be considered.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Menopause* / drug effects
  • Menopause* / physiology
  • Menopause* / psychology
  • Patient Compliance
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Patient Selection