The biological properties and evolutionary dynamics of mammalian LINE-1 retrotransposons

Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2000;64:255-94. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6603(00)64007-2.


Mammalian LINE-1 (L1) elements belong to the superfamily of autonomously replicating retrotransposable elements that lack the long terminal repeated (LTR) sequences typical of retroviruses and retroviral-like retrotransposons. The non-LTR superfamily is very ancient and L1-like elements are ubiquitous in nature, having been found in plants, fungi, invertebrates, and various vertebrate classes from fish to mammals. L1 elements have been replicating and evolving in mammals for at least the past 100 million years and now constitute 20% or more of some mammalian genomes. Therefore, L1 elements presumably have had a profound, perhaps defining, effect on the evolution, structure, and function of mammalian genomes. L1 elements contain regulatory signals and encode two proteins: one is an RNA-binding protein and the second one presumably functions as an integrase-replicase, because it has both endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. This work reviews the structure and biological properties of L1 elements, including their regulation, replication, evolution, and interaction with their mammalian hosts. Although each of these processes is incompletely understood, what is known indicates that they represent challenging and fascinating biological phenomena, the resolution of which will be essential for fully understanding the biology of mammals.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • 5' Untranslated Regions
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Humans
  • Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements*
  • Mammals
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Phylogeny


  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • 5' Untranslated Regions