This study was designed to investigate the effects of synthetic mouse pancreatic polypeptide (mPP) on feeding and anxiety in mice. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of mPP (0.003-3 nmol) dose-dependently increased food intake. A significant increase was observed 20 min after i.c.v. injection and continued for 4 h. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of mPP (0.03-30 nmol) dose-dependently decreased food intake. A significant decrease was observed 20 min after i.p. injection and continued for 4 h. In the elevated plus maze test, the i.c.v. injection of mPP (0.003-3 nmol) did not affect anxiety behavior. These results suggest that mPP modulates food intake and the Y4 receptor in the brain may contribute to the regulation of feeding, whereas appearing not to influence anxiety in mice.