To characterize the type of genetic alterations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), we performed a comprehensive allelotype study of 14 GISTs (2 benign, 7 borderline and 5 malignant) by polymerase-chain-reaction and loss-of-heterozygosity (PCR-LOH) analysis using 102 microsatellite markers, and compared the results with comparative-genomic-hybridization (CGH) analysis. Among the 38 evaluated chromosomal arms, 16 (42.1%) showed LOH in at least one patient. Most frequent LOH was observed at chromosome 14p and 14q (9/14, 64%) and this was demonstrated in all types of GISTs (50% in benign, 71% in borderline and 80% in malignant). Additional chromosomal deletions were found in several chromosomal arms. Among them, deletions on chromosomal arms of 22q (3/14, 21.4%), 9p (2/14, 14.3%) and 9q (2/14, 14.3%) were the most frequent, and were detected only in malignant GISTs both by PCR-LOH and by CGH analysis. Additionally, 2 malignant GISTs with LOH on 9p showed homozygous deletions in the restricted area of 9p by multiplex PCR-LOH analysis. Thus, several putative chromosomal changes were preferentially present in malignant GISTs but rare in benign and borderline GISTs. These findings suggest that accumulated chromosomal changes may contribute to the progression and/or malignant transformation of GISTs.
Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.