Lack of cortical contrast gain control in human photosensitive epilepsy

Nat Neurosci. 2000 Mar;3(3):259-63. doi: 10.1038/72972.


Television and video games may be powerful triggers for visually induced epileptic seizures. To better understand the triggering elements of visual stimuli and cortical mechanisms of hyperexcitability, we examined eleven patients with idiopathic photosensitive epilepsy by recording visually evoked potentials (VEPs) in response to temporally modulated patterns of different contrast. For stimuli of low-medium, but not high, temporal frequency, the contrast dependence of VEP amplitude and latency is remarkably abnormal for luminance contrast (black-white), but not so for chromatic contrast (equiluminant red-green) stimuli. We conclude that cortical mechanisms of contrast gain control for pattern stimuli of relatively low temporal frequency and high luminance contrast are lacking or severely impaired in photosensitive subjects.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Color
  • Contrast Sensitivity / physiology*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy, Reflex / physiopathology*
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Light
  • Male
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Seizures / physiopathology
  • Time Factors
  • Visual Cortex / physiopathology*