Mixed-effects models in psychophysiology

Psychophysiology. 2000 Jan;37(1):13-20.


The current methodological policy in Psychophysiology stipulates that repeated-measures designs be analyzed using either multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) or repeated-measures ANOVA with the Greenhouse-Geisser or Huynh-Feldt correction. Both techniques lead to appropriate type I error probabilities under general assumptions about the variance-covariance matrix of the data. This report introduces mixed-effects models as an alternative procedure for the analysis of repeated-measures data in Psychophysiology. Mixed-effects models have many advantages over the traditional methods: They handle missing data more effectively and are more efficient, parsimonious, and flexible. We described mixed-effects modeling and illustrated its applicability with a simple example.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Psychophysiology*