It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from periodontal pathogens can penetrate gingival tissues and stimulate the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is known as a potent stimulator of inflammation and bone resorption. Although biostimulatory effects of low-level laser irradiation such as anti-inflammatory results have been reported, the physiological mechanism is not yet clarified. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of laser irradiation on PGE2 production and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 gene expression in LPS-challenged human gingival fibroblast (hGF) cells in vitro. hGF cells were prepared from healthy gingival tissues and challenged with LPS, and Ga-Al-As diode laser was irradiated to the hGF cells. The amount of PGE2 released in the culture medium was measured by radioimmunoassay, and mRNA levels were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Irradiation with Ga-Al-As diode low-level laser significantly inhibited PGE2 production in a dose-dependent manner, which led to a reduction of COX-2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation inhibited PGE2 by LPS in hGF cells through a reduction of COX-2 mRNA level. The findings suggest that low-level laser irradiation may be of therapeutic benefit against the aggravation of gingivitis and periodontitis by bacterial infection.