Calcium-binding EGF-like modules in coagulation proteinases: function of the calcium ion in module interactions

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Mar 7;1477(1-2):51-63. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4838(99)00262-9.


Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like modules are involved in protein-protein interactions and are found in numerous extracellular proteins and membrane proteins. Among these proteins are enzymes involved in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and the complement system as well as matrix proteins and cell surface receptors such as the EGF precursor, the low density lipoprotein receptor and the developmentally important receptor, Notch. The coagulation enzymes, factors VII, IX and X and protein C, all have two EGF-like modules, whereas the cofactor of activated protein C, protein S, has four EGF-like modules in tandem. Certain of the cell surface receptors have numerous EGF modules in tandem. A subset of EGF modules bind one Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-binding sequence motif is coupled to a sequence motif that brings about beta-hydroxylation of a particular Asp/Asn residue. Ca(2+)-binding to an EGF module is important to orient neighboring modules relative to each other in a manner that is required for biological activity. The Ca(2+) affinity of an EGF module is often influenced by its N-terminal neighbor, be it another EGF module or a module of another type. This can result in an increase in Ca(2+) affinity of several orders of magnitude. Point mutations in EGF modules that involve amino acids which are Ca(2+) ligands result in the biosynthesis of biologically inactive proteins. Such mutations have been identified, for instance, in factor IX, causing hemophilia B, in fibrillin, causing Marfan syndrome, and in the low density lipoprotein receptor, causing hypercholesterolemia. In this review the emphasis will be on the coagulation factors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / chemistry
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism*
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / chemistry*
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / chemistry*
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • Factor IX / chemistry
  • Factor IX / metabolism
  • Factor VII / chemistry
  • Factor VII / metabolism
  • Factor X / chemistry
  • Factor X / metabolism
  • Fibrillins
  • Microfilament Proteins / chemistry
  • Microfilament Proteins / metabolism
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Point Mutation
  • Protein C / chemistry
  • Protein C / metabolism
  • Protein S / chemistry
  • Protein S / metabolism


  • Blood Coagulation Factors
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Fibrillins
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Protein C
  • Protein S
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Factor VII
  • Factor IX
  • Factor X