Current recommendations in favor of dual-chamber over single-chamber ventricular pacing for patients with sinus node dysfunction or AV conduction disorders were made largely based on observational data and expert opinions. The first randomized pacing mode selection study was relatively small and suggested survival advantage with physiologic pacing only after an extended follow-up duration of 5.5 years. Preliminary results of the first large-scale multicenter randomized pacing mode selection trial revealed only modest reduction in atrial fibrillation without survival advantage after 3 years of physiologic pacing. Two other large-scale multicenter randomized trials comparing physiologic versus ventricular pacing are currently ongoing. They may provide further scientific evidence based on which more objective recommendations can be made with respect to pacing mode selection.