Intervention strategies for promoting long-term weight loss are examined empirically and conceptually. Weight control research over the last 20 years has dramatically improved short-term treatment efficacy but has been less successful in improving long-term success. Interventions in preadolescent children show greater long-term efficacy than in adults. Extending treatment length and putting more emphasis on energy expenditure have modestly improved long-term weight loss in adults. Fresh ideas are needed to push the field forward. Suggested research priorities are patient retention, natural history, assessment of intake and expenditure, obesity phenotypes, adolescence at a critical period, behavioral preference-reinforcement value, physical activity and social support, better linkage of new conceptual models to behavioral treatments, and the interface between pharmacological and behavioral methods.