Objective: To assess the relation between anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of individual data from 12 case-control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China and Europe.
Methods: 2056 female and 417 male cases, 3358 female and 965 male controls were considered. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression, conditioning on age, A-bomb exposure (Japan) and study, and adjusting for radiotherapy.
Results: Compared to the lowest tertile of height, the pooled OR was 1.2 for females for the highest one, and 1.5 for males, and trends in risk were significant. With reference to weight at diagnosis, the OR for females was 1.2 for the highest tertile, and the trend in risk was significant, whereas no association was observed in males. Body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was directly related to thyroid cancer risk in females (OR = 1.2 for the highest tertile), but not in males. No consistent pattern of risk emerged with BMI during the late teens. Most of the associations were observed both for papillary and follicular cancers, and in all age groups. However, significant heterogeneity was observed across studies.
Conclusions: Height and weight at diagnosis are moderately related to thyroid cancer risk.