Hyperglycemia contributes insulin resistance in hepatic and adipose tissue but not skeletal muscle of ZDF rats

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Mar;278(3):E535-43. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.2000.278.3.E535.


To determine the contribution of hyperglycemia to the insulin resistance in various insulin-sensitive tissues of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, T-1095, an oral sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor, was administered by being mixed into food. Long-term treatment with T-1095 lowered both fed and fasting blood glucose levels to near normal ranges. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study that was performed after 4 wk of T-1095 treatment demonstrated partial recovery of the reduced glucose infusion rate (GIR) in the T-1095-treated group. In the livers of T-1095-treated ZDF rats, hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) and glucose utilization rate (GUR) showed marked recovery, with almost complete normalization of reduced glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activities ratio. In adipose tissues, decreased GUR was also shown to be significantly improved with a normalization of insulin-induced GLUT-4 translocation. In contrast, in skeletal muscles, the reduced GUR was not significantly improved in response to amelioration of hyperglycemia by T-1095 treatment. These results suggest that the contribution of hyperglycemia to insulin resistance in ZDF rats is very high in the liver and considerably elevated in adipose tissues, although it is very low in skeletal muscle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / metabolism
  • Adipose Tissue / physiopathology*
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Carbonates / pharmacology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology*
  • Glucokinase / metabolism
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4
  • Glucose-6-Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Glucosides / pharmacology
  • Hyperglycemia / physiopathology*
  • Hyperinsulinism / physiopathology
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / physiopathology*
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / metabolism
  • Muscle Proteins*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology*
  • Obesity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Zucker


  • Blood Glucose
  • Carbonates
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4
  • Glucosides
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Slc2a4 protein, rat
  • T 1095
  • Glucokinase
  • Glucose-6-Phosphatase