Autosomal recessive ichthyosis (ARI) includes a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized by desquamation over the whole body. Two forms largely limited to the skin have been defined: lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE). A first gene for LI, transglutaminase TGM1, has been identified on chromosome 14, and a second one has been localized on chromosome 2. In a genomewide scan of nine large consanguineous families, using homozygosity mapping, two new loci for ARI were found, one for a lamellar form in a 6-cM interval on chromosome 19 and a second for an erythrodermic form in a 7.7-cM interval on chromosome 3. Linkage to one of the four loci could be demonstrated in more than half of 51 consanguineous families, most of them from the Mediterranean basin. All four loci could be excluded in the others, implying further genetic heterogeneity in this disorder. Multipoint linkage analysis gave maximal LOD scores of 11.25 at locus D19S566 and 8.53 at locus D3S3564.