The genetics of the protein 4.1 family: organizers of the membrane and cytoskeleton

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000 Apr;12(2):229-34. doi: 10.1016/s0955-0674(99)00080-0.


Protein 4.1 (also called band 4.1 or simply 4.1) was originally identified as an abundant protein of the human erythrocyte, in which it stabilizes the spectrin/actin cytoskeleton. The protein and its relatives have since been found in many cell types of metazoan organisms and they are often concentrated in the nucleus, as well as in cell-cell junctions. They form multimolecular complexes with transmembrane and membrane-associated proteins, and these complexes may be important for both structural stability and signal transduction at sites of cell contact.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins*
  • Cytoskeleton / physiology*
  • Erythrocyte Membrane / physiology*
  • Guanylate Kinases
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins / physiology
  • Neuropeptides*
  • Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase / metabolism


  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • erythrocyte membrane band 4.1 protein
  • erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1
  • Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase
  • Guanylate Kinases