An experimental model of inflammatory radiculoneuropathy is induced by immunising rats with peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). We have investigated whether PMP22 may be important in inducing human inflammatory neuropathy. We examined sera of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), other neuropathies (ONP) and normal controls for IgM and IgG antibodies against PMP22 by ELISA (against synthetic PMP22 extracellular peptide fragments) and Western blot (against cauda equina). Antibodies were detected by both methods in 52% of patients with GBS, 35% with CIDP, 3% with ONP and no normal controls. We conclude that an immune response against PMP22 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory neuropathies.