Alterations in polyamine metabolism during and after global or focal cerebral ischemia can produce a multiplicity of effects on brain such as modification in mitochondria calcium buffering capacity, exacerbating glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, and impairment of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, the endogenous polyamine spermine was administered intravenously 30 min prior to temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats induced by clipping of the left middle cerebral and bilateral common carotid arteries for 3 h. Three days after removal of the microclips, intracardiac perfusion with 2% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride was performed. Coronal slices were cut, photographed, and examined for cortical infarct volume. Spermine reduced infarct volume in a dose-dependent fashion. This study demonstrates that the use of polyamines may be considered as a powerful tool in prevention of ischemic tissue damage following focal cerebral ischemia.