Dual regulation of proliferation and apoptosis: c-myc in bitransgenic murine mammary tumor models

Oncogene. 2000 Feb 21;19(8):1065-71. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203268.


Recent progress in the study of c-Myc has convincingly demonstrated that it possesses a dual role in regulating both proliferation and apoptosis; however, the manner in which c-Myc influences these cellular response pathways remains incompletely characterized. Deregulation of c-Myc expression, via many mechanisms, is a common feature of multiple cancers and is an especially prominent feature of many breast cancers. Of significant interest to those who study mammary gland development and neoplasia is the unresolved nature and contribution of apoptosis to breast tumorigenesis. Recently, the use of transgenic mice and gene-knockout mice has allowed investigators to evaluate the pathological mechanisms by which different genes influence tumor development and progression. In this review, we address two distinct c-myc-containing bitransgenic murine mammary tumor models and discuss the contribution and possible future directions for resolution of cancer-relevant molecular pathways influenced by c-Myc.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cell Division / genetics
  • Female
  • Genes, myc*
  • Humans
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics*
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic*
  • Milk Proteins / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha / metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


  • Milk Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • whey acidic proteins