The effect of fermented milk supplemented with whey protein concentrate on the serum lipid level of rats was investigated. The serum total cholesterol level for the group fed fermented milk with both Lactobacillus casei TMC0409 and Streptococcus thermophilus TMC 1543 was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05) in rats. Furthermore, the effect of the longterm intake of this fermented milk on the serum lipid level of twenty healthy adult men was investigated. During the 8-wk study, the volunteers consumed 200 ml of fermented milk or placebo in the morning and evening. Blood samples were drawn for analysis three times, just before taking the experimental diet, and after 4 wk and 8 wk of consumption. After 8 wk, the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level for the fermented milk group showed a significant rise after 4 wk (P<0.05), whereas that of the placebo group showed no change even after 4 wk (P>0.05). The triglyceride level for the fermented milk group lowered significantly after 4 wk (<0.05), whereas that of the placebo group showed no change even after 4 wk (P>0.05). The atherogenic index [(total cholesterol - high density lipoprotein cholesterol)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] for the fermented milk group decreased significantly from 4.24 to 3.52 (P<0.05). The systolic blood pressure lowered significantly by the intake of fermented milk (P<0.05) On the other hand, such effect was not observed in the placebo group (P>0.05). These results indicate potential of the development of fermented milk with multiple therapeutic effects.