Inflammatory mediators in heart failure

Int J Cardiol. 2000 Feb 15;72(3):209-13. doi: 10.1016/s0167-5273(99)00190-4.


Cytokines have been identified as a major player in the pathogenesis and the functional status of patients with heart failure. Herein I review studies which are under way to assess the effects of anti-cytokine therapy, where soon we may see treatments directed against bacteria in the bowel, the translocation process, and endotoxin itself, the binding sites of bacterial endotoxin on immune competent cells, or both.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines* / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cytokines* / physiology
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators*
  • Interleukin-6 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Interleukin-6 / physiology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology


  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha