Delayed activation of the paternal genome during seed development

Nature. 2000 Mar 2;404(6773):91-4. doi: 10.1038/35003595.


Little is known about the timing of the maternal-to-zygotic transition during seed development in flowering plants. Because plant embryos can develop from somatic cells or microspores, maternal contributions are not considered to be crucial in early embryogensis. Early-acting embryo-lethal mutants in Arabidopsis, including emb30/gnom which affects the first zygotic division, have fuelled the perception that both maternal and paternal genomes are active immediately after fertilization. Here we show that none of the paternally inherited alleles of 20 loci that we tested is expressed during early seed development in Arabidopsis. For genes that are expressed at later stages, the paternally inherited allele becomes active three to four days after fertilization. The genes that we tested are involved in various processes and distributed throughout the genome, indicating that most, if not all, of the paternal genome may be initially silenced. Our findings are corroborated by genetic studies showing that emb30/gnom has a maternal-effect phenotype that is paternally rescuable in addition to its zygotic lethality. Thus, contrary to previous interpretations, early embryo and endosperm development are mainly under maternal control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Arabidopsis
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Gene Silencing
  • Germination / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Seeds

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF228755
  • GENBANK/AF228757