Disseminated neuroendocrine tumours are difficult to treat and are generally not responsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Nuclear medicine techniques using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue, 111In-Octreotide, have been used for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours. It has been suggested that high activities of such an agent may have a therapeutic effect. The aims of this study were to assess toxicity and to determine if there had been evidence of efficacy. Eight patients with known disseminated neuroendocrine tumours were enrolled in the study; six had carcinoid tumours, one had a medullary cell carcinoma of the thyroid and one patient had a malignant gastrinoma. Between 1.3 and 4.6 GBq of 111In-Octreotide were administered to each patient for up to five administrations over 12 months. A total of 23 administrations were given. Tests of vital signs, renal, liver and endocrine function as well as haematological markers were taken before and after treatment. The treatment was well tolerated with only one patient suffering from a sensation of flushing during the infusion but no changes in vital sings. There was a transient (up to 48 h) drop in circulating lymphocytes in four patients and platelets in two patients; no supportive therapy was needed. One patient with severe renal impairment had a slight reduction in glomerular filtration rate. We conclude that high-activity 111In-Octreotide is well tolerated with low toxicity and can be considered for use in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours. Further work is now being performed to assess efficacy.