Resveratrol is a natural molecule with antioxidant action. Moreover, resveratrol is also considered to be a molecule with anti-inflammatory action, an effect attributed to suppression of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol, a polyphenol present in most red wines, on reactive oxygen species formation as well as on arachidonic acid (AA) release, cyclooxygenase expression, and PG synthesis in murine resident peritoneal macrophages. Results show that resveratrol exerted a strong inhibitory effect on superoxide radical (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or phorbol esters (PMA). Resveratrol also significantly decreased [3H]AA release induced by LPS and PMA or by exposure to O2- or H2O2. Resveratrol treatment caused a significant impairment of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction stimulated by LPS and PMA or by O2- or H2O2 exposure. These effects of resveratrol on [3H]AA release and COX-2 overexpression were correlated with a marked reduction of PG synthesis. Our results indicate that the antioxidant action of resveratrol affects AA mobilization and COX-2 induction.