There has been intense research into the role nitric oxide (NO) plays in physiologic and pathologic mechanisms. The presence of NO in exhaled breath and the high concentrations in nasal airways stimulated many studies examining exhaled and nasal NO as potential markers of airway inflammation, enabling repeated monitoring of airway inflammation not possible with invasive tests (eg, bronchoscopy). In airway inflammation, NO is not merely a marker but may have anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects. Nasal NO measurement may be used in the noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of nasal disease. This review was compiled by speakers who gave presentations on NO at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology in 1999 on exhaled and nasal NO, in vitro studies of NO, the chemistry of airway NO formation, and standardized measurement of exhaled mediators.