Resistance mutations selected in reverse transcriptase (RT) by incompletely suppressive therapy with combination zidovudine and didanosine with or without nevirapine were identified in 141 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 57 individuals in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 241. After prolonged treatment (16-48 weeks), the most common nevirapine-selected mutations were RT 181C (15/30 isolates [50%]), 190A (15/30 [50%]), and 101E (9/30 [30%]). RT 103N and 188L, which individually confer cross-resistance to all nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, were seen in a minority of viruses (6/30 [20%] and 4/30 [13%], respectively). Didanosine-resistance mutations arose rarely. A newly recognized mutation, RT 44D, was selected by the nucleosides. Two distinct zidovudine-resistance mutational patterns were noted. Mutations selected during treatment with zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine differed among individuals and changed over time. Resistance testing is necessary to identify which mutations are selected by nevirapine-containing combinations.