The Purkinje cells and the granule cells are the most important targets in cerebellum for toxic substances. The Purkinje cells are among the largest neuron in the brain and are very sensitive to ischaemia, bilirubin, ethanol and diphenylhydantoin. The granule cells are small and seem to be sensitive to loss of intracellular glutathione. Granule cells are sensitive to methyl halides, thiophene, methyl mercury, 2-chloropropionic acid and trichlorfon. The Purkinje cells appear in the rat brain on pre-natal day 14-16, whereas the granule cells appear post-natally. Both cells are sensitive to excitotoxic chemicals and also to an effect on DNA or its repair mechanisms.